Any substance derived from plant tissues can be used to generate callus tissue. However, the successful generation of callus depends on the plant qualities and species. Generally, dicotyledons are more sensitive to callus tissue inductions than monocotyledons are. Seeds, flowers, roots, leaves, stems and other parts can be used, although fresh and younger ex-plants are preferable materials. Any ex-plants obtained should be sterilized using sodium hypochlorite, ethanol or other chemicals, in order to help remove any microorganisms.
Preparation of plant tissue culture media
The process of tissue culture seeks to cut plant parts into small pieces allowing them to give rise to multiple individual plants. Those that have been grown hydroponically or using soil need fertilizer, air, light and water to grow require an external source of sucrose. This is because the media goes into shock when ex-plants are made. Therefore, in addition to sucrose and fertilizer, it is advisable to add vitamins.
To induce callus from ex-plants and to cultivate cells and callus in suspension, different types of media have been designed, such as inorganic salts. Agar or a substitute can be added in the media to prepare solid medium to induce callus reactions. Other agents required in order to induce callus tissues include carbon sources, vitamins, phytohormones and organic supplements.
Advantages of plant tissue culture media
Plant tissue culture refers to a collection of methods employed to grow or maintain plant organs, cells or tissues under sterile conditions. Plant tissue cultures have often been used to produce cones using a technique known as micro propagation. The methods used in plant tissue culture can offer several advantages over the conventional techniques of propagation. The advantages include:
· The techniques allow for reproduction of plants that produce desirable traits, such as good fruits and flowers
· Allows for the quick production of mature plants
· The techniques allow for the production of many good and healthy plants in the absence of the necessary pollinators or seeds. The technique can also be used to produce seeds and to regenerate seeds from genetically modified cells.
· The generation of plants under sterile conditions allows them to be moved easily while greatly reducing chances of transmitting pests, pathogens and disease.
· The technique allows for the generation of plants from seeds that have a low chance of germinating, as well as growing, such as orchids and Nepenthes.
· The technique also allows for ways to clean various infections, including viral infections, to allow them to quickly multiply once they are cleaned for agricultural and horticultural purposes.